British doctors designed a solution a save a girls major heart problem on the year 1995. They implanted a donor heart onto her own failing heart. After 10 years of having two hearts pumping for Hannah Clarks to live, she majorly healed itself enough for the doctors to have the reason to remove her donated heart and have his own heart properly working for her. She would only have to pay for the drugs she is taking when she is at that kind of state.
"It reminds us that not all heart failure is lethal," said Dr. Ileana Pina, a heart failure expert at Case Western Reserve University and spokeswoman for the American Heart Association. "Some heart failure patients have a greater chance of recovery than we thought."
It also encourages all the people having heart failures. They have a chance now to live more and also for doctors that practicing on this kind of field.
With respect to the creation of e-commerce, different regulation was also established to cater individuals that were engage in the e-commerce. Through legislation, governments and consumers were interconnected and became partners when the safety and reliability on consumers is the issue. Come to think of a certain issue that don’t have legislation, you will surely got to the point that security and reliability will be less many. We all know that different transactions made online needs security that enables as the protection to hackers, crackers, thieves and other criminal acts online. Even though without the presence of money, there are also crimes arises that we cannot afford to handle with. Since even when you are just surfing the internet, many of internet users tend to hack on your accounts and profiles. And this as a simple transaction made also needed those legislations that would help and would ease your reliability.
There are many kinds of e-commerce law that were built to secure and protect its consumers. I have read a certain topic that the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law created a model law on electronic commerce that served as a guide for many countries who passed their perspective laws. And we are included on the 14 countries that already passed their perspective laws as of June 2002. Countries included were Australia, Bermuda, Columbia, Ecuator, France, Hongkong, India, Ireland and Jersey. And a certain guide was being made to help understand more the basic components.
The Republic Act 8792 or the e-commerce law was ratified last June 14, 2000. Because of this law, the Philippine Internet Community had come to rise on the marketplace. The electronic transaction guidelines of this law are:
1. It gives legal recognition of electronic data messages, electronic documents and electronic signatures.
2. Allows the formation of contracts in electronic forms.
3. Makes banking transactions done through ATM switching, network absolute once consummated.
4. Parties are given the right to choose the type and level of security methods that suit their needs.
5. Provides the mandate for the electronic implementation of transport documents to facilitate carriage of goods. This includes documents such as, but not limited to multi-modal, airport road, rail, inland, waterway, courier, post receipts, transport documents issued by freight forwarders, marine/ocean bill of lading, non-negotiable seaway bill and charter party bill lading.
It was stated that an e-commerce law does not necessarily cover pure electronic transactions. It tackles issues as well about traditional paper documents that were converted or replicated in electronic form like through photocopying or fax transmission.
The context of functional equivalence is that these documents shall not be denied admissibility in legal courts just because they are in electronic form.
Media and technology neutrality
To accommodate various forms of future technologies it should not be made biased or favorable towards any technologies. It should not violate other technologies in terms of usability. In order to be accepted, those were the terms that should be followed. Being neutral on other forms of technology is its main goal.
Parties have the freedom to choose the security level that suits their needs. Parties in the contract have the right to agree on how they will electronically transact and be flexible in handling non-mandatory provisions of the law. In absence of an agreement, what is stated in the law shall be followed. There were necessary documents needed for a transaction to be more reliable. These are acknowledgement receipt, time and place of dispatch and receipt of information, attribution, and transport documents.
An electronic document is considered an electronic signature if a method is used to identify the signatory and indicate approval of the information contained in the electronic message.
The method was reliable and appropriate for the purpose for which the electronic document was generated or communicated. Widely used of scanning a written signature to an image is also used as an electronic signature and attaching it to documents and papers when creating a transaction online is necessarily being made in order to have a legal signature.
Electronic documents need to be created and stored in stable format and readable. It should be accessible so to be usable for subsequent reference. The reliability to its source should be ease to enable any access for the source itself.
Similar to writing, there should be a method of assurance as to its integrity is reliable. It will look into how the information is systematically generated, gaps and error handling if any and alteration protection. There are so many protection laws right now that is very much of use like patenting and copyrighting that protects on alteration of data and personal writing.
The law provides guidelines as well on how electronic documents and paper based documents be stored electronically.
We all know that there were legislations that imposed taxes to products. An example of this is the VAT or value added taxes. With this we all know that both the government and consumers sufficiently satisfy its demand. In order to comply on e-commerce based on general information requirements these are the necessary requirements that should be needed.
1. Your business’s name, geographic address and other contact details including your email address
2. Details of any publicly available register in which you are entered, together with your registration number or equivalent
3. The particulars of the supervisor body if the service is subject to an authorization scheme
4. Details of any professional body with which you are registered
5. Your VAT registration number
If your website refers to prices, these must be clear and indicate whether they include tax and delivery cost. Necessary information about the company should be stated in your website. A common place to put this information is in the “ABOUT INFO” or “LEGAL INFO” page of the site. It does not have to appear on every page. This rule also applies to any electronic communications sent by your company, such as emails.
The Impact on Jobs
Technology not only affects the way companies are organized, it also affects jobs in two ways:
• Technology displaces some jobs. Since there arises some technology innovations, the jobs are being displaces by the technology itself to support a work to be done.
• Technology changes how work is actually done. We could easily do jobs in an instant way since the technology could manipulate it easily since it was being innovated on way how the past technology is lack with.
Technology and Clerical Work
One area of work that will be severely affected by innovations in information technology is clerical work. Over 80 percent of clerical workers are women. In fact, the most recent census shows that the three most common jobs for women remain in clerical, sales and service occupations.
It is predicted that the job dislocation for women clerical workers in the 1990s will be as significant as the dislocation that men in blue-collar jobs experienced in the 1980s. In fact, it will likely be more severe because women are so concentrated in clerical jobs whereas men are employed over a greater range of occupations. Technology had its first impact on clerical workers in the 1980s. With the introduction of personal computers, all workers were able to produce their own documents, memos and letters, thus eliminating many clerical jobs. The second wave of technology, in the form of electronic data interchange (EDI), which is the computer-to-computer exchange of information, is now positioned to move beyond the banking sector where it originated.
Freeware are software being created to be distributed for free for unlimited time. However freeware may not always provide much help in terms of support if the software goes wrong, so there is always a certain amount of risk when using freeware. The source code of freeware is also widely available, therefore modification, updates and future development can be contributed to by a community of programmers, rather than just the author. Whilst freeware will be free for use, for home users, and without restrictions, this may not be the case for commercial use. The software license will indicate if academic and commercial use will be prohibited or not. This software should be fully functional and with no cost for any period of time and downloadable off the internet. Though freeware does not require financially, it does have a user license or an end user license agreement. There should be a specific licensed that is bundled with different restrictions that are also common to some programs. The common thing to these is that the software or the program should not be altered or it should remain unchanged. Freeware does not often come with technical support and some of these programs do not have a help menu. You could find a help support for different kinds of freeware when you would get to enter to forums involving the use of this freeware and it was provided also by different individuals trying to use the same software as you’ve got. It is because many freeware developers create this program with no intention to gain money or profit. Some freeware are bundled with different kinds of manuals to help end user on the use of the software. Some would include different websites that would help user and as well as a website that would mainly for users to users help. Freeware also comes with different versions since the developer does an automatic update on the software after many kinds of queries that were sent by users.
Usually, a freeware is only available for personal use and not for commercial or business. When it comes to business, a paid licensed are imposed commercially. Freeware really helps different kinds of users that are really onto online services. Many talented coders report that writing handy programs is an addictive hobby. Others use freeware as a stepping-stone to garner sales for more robust editions offered at a cost. And still other freeware programs bring traffic to sites that rely on a suite of related shareware programs for income.